Troubleshooting

In the real world, manufacturing dilemmas arise. Equipment varies, materials have different characteristics. The following tips may help you avoid problems in your manufacturing process. But remember that Klöckner Pentaplast's team of experts has the engineering expertise and technical know-how to get you running and keep you running. And we're always a phone call away.

Boxmaking

Troubleshooting boxmaking machinery takes patience and time. Everyone wants the problem solved immediately. Rather than trying to rush to a solution, it is best to take the time and find the root cause of the problem. Time and patience will solve it.

When a problem is noticed, the operator should look at every stage of the process. First, find at which stage the problem started then find the cause. Here are some hints to help you solve a few common problems. Always remember to keep a log book with the problems and solutions. They'll be easier to solve next time around.

Don't forget to write your original settings down before you begin troubleshooting. Try one thing at a time. If it doesn't work, return to the original settings and try something else.

Cutting (Guillotine Cutter)
ProblemCauseSolution
Unexact cutting edges
Wrong knife angle Knife with cutting angle of 22° and a prefase of 28°
Cutters are worn out Use of sufficiently sharp and exact cutters
Film stacks are too high Reduce the stacks height: take 10 cm as an approximate height


Printing
ProblemCauseSolution
Poor sheet guiding (blocking, double-sheet feeding, etc.)
Stock and handling conditions have not been keptStore film in original packaging; if possible remove packaging 24 hours before handling and store film in printing hall; a relative humidity of at least 55% is recommended
Format stacks are too strongly charged Do not stack more than two pallets on top of each other
No air between sheetsFan and/or lift up outer sheets before printing
Film sheets stick together/stick to machine due to electrostatic charge Separate film sheets with ionized air
Printing speed is too highReduce printing speed (depends on machine)
Insufficient ink key
Inappropriate inkUse printing ink which is suitable for polymer type and drying procedure
Surface tension is too low Use pretreated film (Corona, DYNOX®)
Printing ink is not scratch resistant

Film sheets stick together after printing

Printing ink is passed on to next sheet
Unsuitable printing inkUse printing ink which is suitable for polymer type and drying procedure
Printing ink has not been sufficiently hardened/driedEvaporate drying: increase amount of air, if necessary, air temperature
UV-drying: optimize/clean UV-heater
Oxidative drying: use a film with sufficient roughness depth/check composition of fountain solution (ph-value)


Punching
ProblemCauseSolution
Film breaks
Punching tool is damagedChange punching tool or punching support
Film is too coldDo not process film under a temperature of 15°C
Film is not suficiently impact resistantUse a film with higher tensile strength


Gluing
ProblemCauseSolution
Bond strength of gluing line not strong enough

Unsuitable glueUse only glue which is recommended for the polymer being used
Speed of machine is too high Adjust speed
Contact pressure or contact time is too lowRaise pressure/speed
Glue line discolors (APET, GAG)Solvent glue has been used
Use PU-Hotmelt (APET, GAG); if necessary, a glue with slower effect (GAG)
Vapor locks generate in the glue line (PU-hotmelt) Contact pressure is too lowUse suitable glue

Card Lamination

Card lamination is the way of bonding two or more layers of films together under increased temperature and pressure without using adhesives. The process is used mostly for combining PVC layers, but different substrate layers can be used if required.

The lamination properties of vinyl films are highly dependent on the formulation of the film. Additives like acetate-copolymer reduce the softening behavior significantly. ABS additives are used to increase the softening behavior. Here are quick and detailed guides to aid you in the lamination process.

For further information on card production, visit the card product section of the site.

Quick Guide
Temperature Set PointHeat TimeCooling Time
285 to 300°F22 minutes at 125 psi18 minutes (125 psi for first 2 minutes; 250 psi at remaining 16 minutes)


Detailed Guide
Temperature Set PointHeat TimeCooling Time
285 to 300°F 22 minutes at 125 psi18 minutes (125 psi for first 2 minutes; 250 psi at remaining 16 minutes)
Temperature set point will vary from lamination press to lamination press

The goal of the heating cycle is to get the middle sheet in any opening to reach a probe temperature of 250°F. The goal in any cooling cycle is to bring the material down to ambient room temperature.
At that point, you want your outside sheets (top sheet in opening & bottom sheet in opening) to be as close to 250°F as possible. The maximum exit temperature for the material out of the lamination press would be recommended at 100°F.
We would expect the delta between these two locations ideally to be 5 to 7°F & not greater than 10°F. Higher exit temperatures will lead to card warpage.
Meeting the center temperature will guarantee maximum peel strength & great center core-to-core bonding for split card construction cards. Some presses have chillers & some don't. If a chiller is available set its exit temperature between 55 to 60°F.
Variation in temperature from the middle to top or bottom sheet in any one opening of greater than 10° would be a concern for yellowing & possible distortion to the outer most sheets. Elapse time is the time required by the lamination press to bring the exit temperature at or below 100°F. Thus time will vary. With a chiller 18 to 20 minutes would be typical.
Please note that once center temperature in any opening reaches 250°F you can immediately go into the cooling cycle. Pressure is kept the same as in the heating cycle for the first two minutes of cooling because the center sheet temperature in the middle of each opening are still raising.
The material just needs to see 250°F for an instant to reach maximum benefit. After two minutes, the pressure is doubled to further ensure that that the layers of PVC materials remain intact during cooling.
It does not have to cook for a period of time at that 250°F.

Printing

Troubleshooting printing machinery takes patience and time. Everyone wants the problem solved immediately. Rather than trying to rush to a solution, it is best to take the time and find the root cause of the problem. Time and patience will solve it.

When a problem is noticed, the operator should look at every stage of the process. First, find at which stage the problem started then find the cause. Here are some hints to help you solve a few common problems. Always remember to keep a log book with the problems and solutions. They'll be easier to solve next time around.

Don't forget to write your original settings down before you begin troubleshooting. Try one thing at a time. If it doesn't work, return to the original settings and try something else.

Cutting (Guillotine Cutter)
ProblemCauseSolution
Unexact cutting edges
Wrong knife angleKnife with cutting angle of 22° and a prefase of 28°
Cutters are worn out Use of sufficiently sharp and exact cutters
Film stacks are too highReduce the stacks height: take 10 cm as an approximate height


Printing
ProblemCauseSolution
Poor sheet guiding (blocking, double-sheet feeding, etc.)




Stock and handling conditions have not been keptStore film in original packaging; if possible remove packaging 24 hours before handling and store film in printing hall; a relative humidity of at least 55% is recommended
Format stacks are too strongly charged Do not stack more than two pallets on top of each other
No air between sheetsFan and/or lift up outer sheets before printing
Film sheets stick together/stick to machine due to electrostatic charge Separate film sheets with ionized air
Printing speed is too highReduce printing speed (depends on machine)
Insufficient ink key
Inappropriate inkUse printing ink which is suitable for polymer type and drying procedure
Surface tension is too low Use pretreated film (Corona, DYNOX®)
Printing ink is not scratch resistant

Film sheets stick together after printing

Printing ink is passed on to next sheet
Unsuitable printing inkUse printing ink which is suitable for polymer type and drying procedure
Printing ink has not been sufficiently hardened/dried
Evaporate drying: increase amount of air, if necessary, air temperature
UV-drying: optimize/clean UV-heater
Oxidative drying: use a film with sufficient roughness depth/check composition of fountain solution (ph-value)


Punching
ProblemCauseSolution
Film breaks
Punching tool is damaged
Change punching tool or punching support
Film is too coldDo not process film under a temperature of 15°C
Film is not sufficiently impact resistantUse a film with higher tensile strength


Gluing
ProblemCauseSolution
Bond strength of gluing line not strong enough
Unsuitable glueUse only glue which is recommended for the polymer being used
Speed of machine is too high Adjust speed
Contact pressure or contact time is too lowRaise pressure/speed
Glue line discolors (APET, GAG)Solvent glue has been usedUse PU-Hotmelt (APET, GAG); if necessary, a glue with slower effect (GAG)
Vapor locks generate in the glue line (PU-hotmelt) Contact pressure is too lowUse suitable glue

Thermoforming

Troubleshooting thermoforming and form/fill/seal machinery takes patience and time. Everyone wants the problem solved immediately. Rather than trying to rush to a solution, it is best to take the time and find the root cause of the problem. Time and patience will solve it.

When a problem is noticed, the operator should look at every stage of the process. First, find at which stage the problem started then find the cause. Here are some hints to help you solve a few common problems. Always remember to keep a log book with the problems and solutions. They'll be easier to solve next time around.

Don't forget to write your original settings down before you begin troubleshooting. Try one thing at a time. If it doesn't work, return to the original settings and try something else.


THERMOFORMING

Appearance of folds, webbing, or wrinkles
ProblemCauseSolution
Appearance of folds, webbing, or wrinkles
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Stretch of the material too high / saggingReduce heating time / intensity; if moulding insufficient change material
Big shrinkage differences over the width or excessive TD growthDefective material
Irregular heatingCheck temperature of radiator (oven)/heating plate. Inspect for bent/damaged heaters, replace


Material tears or blows holes when contacting the tool or during forming
ProblemCauseSolution
Material tears or blows holes when contacting the tool or during forming
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Material too coldIncrease heating time / intensity
Compressed air / vacuum too earlyAdapt delay
Tooling too coldIncrease temperature of the tool
Edges and corners of the tool are too sharpChange geometry of the formed part
Tool too rough (material does not slide)Polish tool surface
Excessive material sag; drags tool on indexReduce heating time or increase line speed
Too little clearance between tooling componentsAdjust tooling for greater distances between male/female
Forming press / plug speed too fastAdjust speed
Material gauge insufficient for designed drawIncrease material gauge / review tooling draw ratios

Glossy spots
ProblemCauseSolution
Glossy spots
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Unequal material distributionAdd vacuum holes around this area
Non-uniform tool surfaceBead or polish tool


Walls too thin
ProblemCauseSolution
Walls too thin
Cold or hot areas in heating stationCheck radiators / heating plate
Not enough space between cavitiesIncrease space between cavities
Tool close or plug speed too fastAdjust tool close or plug speed
Material gauge insufficient for designed drawIncrease material gauge / review tooling draw ratios

Bubbles or pit marks on surface of formed part
ProblemCauseSolution
Bubbles or pit marks on surface of formed part
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Form ejected too fastDecrease demoulding speed
Irregular heatingOptimize heat distribution
Heating too intensiveReduce heating time / intensity
Forming temperature window of material too narrowExchange material
Trapped air between sheet and toolRoughen or sand tool to assist in air escape
Dust, dirt, or small particulate matter on toolClean tool
Condensation on tooling / water dripping on sheetIncrease tooling temperature / repair leaks

Bad transparency of the formed part; hazy or blushing
ProblemCauseSolution

Bad transparency of the formed part;
hazy or blushing

APET-film too hot (cristallisation)Reduce film temperature
Film temperature too low (whitebreak)Increase film temperature
Surface of the mould too roughPolish surface
Tool or plugs too coldIncrease tool or plug temperature
Plug or tool speed too fastDecrease plug or tool speed
Material surface scratched or abraidedInspect material transport through machine

Bridges/Webs
ProblemCauseSolution
Bridges/Webs
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Insufficient compressed airIncrease air pressure
Tool too hotReduce tool temperature
Sagging of materialReduce heating time / intensity; if moulding insufficient change material
Space between plug and mould too narrow or wideOptimize plug and/or ring dimensions
Tool constructionOptimize tool geometry, install technical aid
Cycle time too long / shortOptimize cycle time


Cloudy areas; surface distortion or marks
ProblemCauseSolution
Cloudy areas; surface distortion or marks
Tool temperature too lowIncrease tool temperature until cloudy areas disappear
Too much silicone on surface or film defectsExchange material

Material tears on the bottom of the formed part or formed cavity too thin
ProblemCauseSolution
Material tears on the bottom of the formed part or formed cavity too thin
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Too much pre-stretchingDecrease level of pre-stretching
Upper plug too late / too slowOptimize timing / speed
Material too thinChoose thicker material
Uneven thickness profile over widthCheck thickness profile over width
Material has inclusionsCheck material specification
Vacuum on too early or too much pressureAdjust vacuum timing or pressure

White stretch (stress) marks
ProblemCauseSolution
White stretch (stress) marks
Upper plug too early / too fastOptimize timing / speed
Distance between heating plate and tool too bigDecrease distance
Material difficult to thermoformExchange material
Material too coldIncrease heating time / intensity
Ejection air pressure too lowOptimize ejection air pressure
Tool surface too roughPolish tool surface
Table moves down too quicklyReduce speed of table-movement
Form press opens too fastDecrease opening speed

Bad definition at the edges of the forming area
ProblemCauseSolution
Bad definition at the edges of the forming area
Material too coldIncrease heating time / intensity
Ejected part too hotReduce temperature of tool; increase cooling time
DownholderReflect downholder out
Draught (draft) over the filmProtect machine / film against draught
Not enough space between cavitiesIncrease space between cavities
Clamping frame too narrowEnlarge clamping frame
Clamping frame not reflected outReflect frame out
Pressure and or vacuum timing not optimizedModify vacuum and pressure settings
Pin chain rails cooling edges of materialIncrease temperature of pin chain rails

Folds on thermoformed part
ProblemCauseSolution
Folds on thermoformed part
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
In corners: compressed air / vacuum too earlyOptimize delay
On walls / bottom: compressed air / vacuum too lateOptimize delay
Too much pre-stretchingDecrease level of pre-stretching
No evacuation / evacuation holes pluggedOptimize mould / clean evacuation holes
Corners or undercut of the mould too sharpAdjust geometry of the part
Sagging of material / material touches mould Reduce heating time / intensity; if moulding insufficient change material; use sag bar or spread chain rails


Formed part sticks to tool
ProblemCauseSolution
Formed part sticks to tool
Ejection-air (missing or too low)ZelleCheck pressure of compressed air
Edges / corners or undercut of the mould too sharpAdjust geometry of the part
Surface of the tool too rough (material does not slide)Polish surface of the tool
Bad demoulding of film/poor mould releaseExchange material / use release agent
Tool too hotReduce tool temperature
Material too hotReduce heating time/intensity


Part deforms during demoulding
ProblemCauseSolution
Part deforms during demoulding
Material ejected too hotIncrease cooling time
Tool too hot Reduce tool temperature (cooling)
Ejection air too high / ejection time too longOptimize ejection


Parts in the corners too thin
ProblemCauseSolution
Parts in the corners too thin
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Radius of the mould too smallIncrease radius/use thicker material
Tool too hot/coldAdjust tool temperature (cooling or heating)
Flanks too flatRedesign part


No demoulding of material - parts do not eject
ProblemCauseSolution
No demoulding of material - parts do not eject
Temperatutre of tool too highReduce tool temperature (cooling)
Ejection air too lowIncrease pressure of ejection air
Material too stickyExchange material


Details too sharp (e.g. vacuum holes visible)
ProblemCauseSolution
Details too sharp (e.g. vacuum holes visible)
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Surface of the tool too roughClean surface / reduce roughness of the tool
Level of compressed air too highReduce pressure
Tool too hotReduce tool temperature (cooling)
Vacuum or pressure duration too longReduce vacuum or pressure timing


Bad forming; no definition
ProblemCauseSolution
Bad forming; no definition
Closing of tool not sufficientZelleCheck / change sealing ring; check flatness of plates
Bad timing of vacuum-/ pressureformingAdjust timing
Forming pressure not sufficientIncrease pressure
Material too coldIncrease heating time / intensity
Cycle too shortIncrease cycle time
Tool too coldCheck/optimize cooling temperature
Vacuum not sufficient
Increase number of vacuum holes
Check vacuum system for leaks
Trapped air between cavity and filmCheck arrangement and number of vacuum holes

Thermoformed part warped
ProblemCauseSolution
Thermoformed part warped
Tool too hotReduce tool temperature (cooling)
Clamping frame doesn't work properlyIncrease closing pressure of clamping frame
Jaws in chain not adjusted properlyAdjust jaws in chain
Vacuum and/or air pressure not syncronized Adjust forming air timing
Excessive post forming material shrinkageMold design - consider oversized molds or re-design

Thin areas
ProblemCauseSolution
Thin areas
Wrong temperature of materialOptimize profile of heat distribution
Material too thinUse thicker material
Vacuum too fastOptimize vacuum speed
Cavities too close togetherIncrease distance between cavities

Tearmarks
ProblemCauseSolution
TearmarksWrong setup of pre-stretchingUse pre-stretch plug made of polished aluminium, coated Teflon® or expanded plastic


Webs or folds in the corners when positive forming
ProblemCauseSolution
Webs or folds in the corners when positive forming
Material too coldIncrease heating time / intensity
Pre-stretching sequence too longShorten pre-stretching sequence
Form of mould not enough conical Design form of mould more conical
Edges and corners too sharpRedesign mould
Walls too vertical/draft angle too steepRedesign mould allowing greater draft

No contact to the forming tool
ProblemCauseSolution
No contact to the forming toolTool does not close properlyCheck flatness of tool

Lateral quench marks
ProblemCauseSolution
Lateral quench marks
Upper plug moves too early or too quicklyOptimize time and speed
Tool too coldIncrease tool temperature
Surface of the tool too smoothSandblast surface of the tool
Heat distributionOptimize heat distribution profile
Pre-stretching too low / too shortIncrease pre-stretching
Upper plug too coldIncrease temperature


Unequal border (trim) width of the formed parts
ProblemCauseSolution
Unequal border (trim) width of the formed parts
Material too hot Reduce heating time / intensity
Pre-stretching too earlyDelay pre-stretching
Forming too earlyDelay forming
Table moves too quicklyReduce speed of table-movement
Insufficient closure of toolCheck flatness of tool
Material too thinChoose thicker material
Shrinkage of material too highExchange material

Poor surface of the formed part
ProblemCauseSolution
Poor surface of the formed part
Poor tool surfacePolish or abrasive blast tool surface
Dirty materialSort material out
Heating plates dirtyClean heating plates
Surface of upper plug too roughPolish plug
Dirty mouldClean mould with applicable cleaner
Inclusions in the materialCheck specification

Marks on the bottom of the thermoformed part
ProblemCauseSolution
Marks on the bottom of the thermoformed part
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Vacuum not sufficientOptimize vacuum
Pre-stretching insufficientOptimize pre-stretching
Vacuum holes too small / too lessIncrease dimensions / number of vacuum holes

Material accumulation in transversal direction
ProblemCauseSolution
Material accumulation in transversal direction
Vacuum too slowIncrease vacuum speed
Material too hotReduce heating time / intensity
Tool surface too smoothSandblast tool surface
Wrong position of vacuum holesRedesign position of vacuum holes


Air streaks on thermoformed part
ProblemCauseSolution
Air streaks on thermoformed part
Vacuum not sufficientOptimize vacuum
Tool surface too smoothSandblast tool surface
Insufficient closure of toolCheck flatness of tool
Vacuum holes too small / too less Increase dimensions / number of vacuum holes
Material defectsExchange material


Blister is not (well) stackable; denesting problems
ProblemCauseSolution
Blister is not (well) stackable; denesting problems
No antiblocking additive (PET)Exchange material
Film too thickReduce thickness
Too little release agent between mould and materialUse release agent or silicone coated material
Part designAdd denesting lugs, increase draft angles, or remove undercuts; redesign

Blister is unstable
ProblemCauseSolution
Blister is unstable
Material too thinChange to ticker material
No reinforcing ribsAdd reinforcements
Part designAdd chamfeurs or redesign part


Holes in thermoformed part
ProblemCauseSolution
Holes in thermoformed part
Cycle time too shortAdjust cycle time
Irregular heatingChange defect parts of heating system
Material too coldIncrease temperature / intensity
Material sticks to mouldChange material / use mould with Teflon® coated surface
Vacuum holes too largeClose vacuum holes and redrill smaller holes
Inclusions in the materialCheck specification
Ventilation does not work properly when plug moves into the cavityCheck ventilation
Vacuum / Pressure timing not optimizedAdjust vacuum and pressure onset / duration


Angel hair
ProblemCauseSolution
Angel hair
Knife too bluntSharpen knifes, or change for new ones - replace strike plate
Material too soft or tensile strength too highModify material choice
Cutting depth too lowIncrease knife penetration


No cutting
ProblemCauseSolution
No cutting
Knife too bluntSharpen knifes, or change for new ones
Knife has no contact to cutting plateAdjust position of knife
Punching pressure too lowOptimize punching pressure
Hydraulic system contains airClose and purge hydraulic system
Punching knife warpedAdjust / renew knife


No continuous cut
ProblemCauseSolution
No continuous cut
Irregular bladeExchange cutting blade
Cutting knife not installed properlyAdjust knife position


Material sticks to knife
ProblemCauseSolution
Material sticks to knifeMaterial too hotIncrease cooling
ZelleKnife temperature too highReduce knife temperature
ZelleSilicone coated side away from knifeReverse material at the unwind



FORM/FILL/SEAL

Base web feeding
ProblemCauseSolution
Transport chain or feeding system does not grip or index the film
The transport chain or clipping mechanism pulls on one side only (wear)Tighten or exchange the transport chain; replace springs or worn clips
Bad closing tensionRevise closing tension
Alignment of machine not horizontallyNew alignment of machine
Control cam misadjustedSet the control cam
Unwinding device and idler pulley are not alignedNew alignment of unwinding device and idler pulley
Offset stacking of filmAdhere to tolerances
Wrong width of film reelExchange material
Braking power of unwinding station too highAdapt braking power of unwinding station
Film rips out of the transport chain or clipping mechanism
Film width is too narrowExchange material
Bending of the filmAdhere to tolerances
Bad closing tension Revise closing tension
Dancer stroke is misaligned to indexAdjust dancer stroke
Excessive TD shrinkageExchange material
Crinkles or folds/wrinkles
The transport chain pulls on one side only (wear)Tighten or exchange the transport chain
Alignment of machine not horizontallyNew alignment of machine
Control cam misadjustedAdjust control cam
Wrong width of film reelExchange material


Heating unit
ProblemCauseSolution
Cracknels, bubbles, or surface marks
Air inclusions between heating plate and film
As a basic principle: keep forming temperature as low as possible
Sandblast and Teflon®-coating of heating plate
Mask heating plate with Teflon®
Raster heating plate with holes of 0,8-1,1 mm
Position heating plate lower than the frame
Reduce heat plate vacuum pressure
Cloudy parts
Temperature of heating plates too highAdapt temperature
Heat plate vacuum pressure too highReduce heat plate vacuum pressure
Dirty or worn heat platesClean or replace / recoat plates
Cristallisation (danger with APET-films)
Temperature of heating plates too highAdapt temperature
Index / cycle too slowIncrease index / cycle speed
Whitebreak
Temperature of heating plates too lowAdapt temperature
Index too fast Slow index speed


Thermoforming station
ProblemCauseSolution
Insufficient moulding / cold forming
Forming temperature too lowAdapt temperature of heating plate
Forming pressure too lowAdapt forming pressure
Forming time too shortAdapt forming time
Vacuum too low
Revise vacuum system
Revise evacuation holes
Revise gasket of sealing frame
Revise sealing of forming tool
Downward movement of the plug too slowRegulate downward movement of the plug
Wrong thermoforming ratio
Adapt film thickness to thermoforming depth
If applicable use plug
Mold / plug temperature too coldWarm mold / plug
Dancer stroke is misaligned to index causing neck-in and loss of seal / vacuumAdjust dancer stroke
Excessive TD shrinkage causing neck-in and loss of seal / vacuumExchange material
Deforming of formed part
Temperature of the forming tool too highPay attention to temperature of the forming tool, if applicable install cooling device for forming tool
Cooling time too shortOptimize cycle
Air eject pressure too high / earlyReduce pressure / adjust onset timing
Material breaks when thermoformed
Thermoforming temperature too low / too highAdapt thermoforming temperature
Film thickness too lowAdapt film thickness to thermoforming form
Thermoforming ratio too highAdapt film thickness to thermoforming form
Edges of the package are too sharpChange design of the package
Dancer stroke is misaligned to indexAdjust dancer stroke
Plug /assist plate speed too fastReduce plug / assist plate speed
PE-layer breaks when thermoformed (with a plug)
Too low tolerance of the plug/too high friction between film and plugAdapt size of plug to the mould
Plug (if heated)/temperature of the film too highReduce temperature of the plug and the mould
Activation of plug too earlyAdapt time sequence of plug
PE layer sticks to heating platesReduce heating plate temperature of PE layer side
Airmarks
Insufficient vacuumInspect vacuum system/increase vacuum pressure
Tool does not seal hermeticallyRevise hermetical sealing
Fish eyes or inclusions in the film which might break openComply with quality specifications
Vacuum time/vacuum level is set too lowIncrease vacuum time/vacuum level
Film rips out of the transport chain / index mechanism
The temperature of the heating plate is too low which leads to a high tension on the film transport chainIncrease temperature
Dancer stroke is misaligned to indexAdjust dancer stroke
Excessive TD shrinkageExchange material


Filling of the package
ProblemCauseSolution
Film rips out of the film transport chainZelleFilling weight too high; the package is not underpinnedAdapt filling weight to the package
ZelleBending of the filmAdhere to tolerances


Feeding of sealing film
ProblemCauseSolution
Crinkles,folds, or wrinkles
Unbalanced unwinding of sealing filmRevise unwinding station, e.g. adjust web tension
CurvatureExchange sealing film if necessary
Curling of sealing film in machine direction too strongExchange sealing film if necessary
Wavy edgesExchange sealing film if necessary
Mis-alignment of rollAdjust alignment
Variation of dimension
Dimensional variation of repeating pattern
Revise length of repeating pattern
Adjust photoelectric cell


Sealing unit
ProblemCauseSolution
Package leaking / poor sealing
Film inserted incorrectlySealing layers of sealing film and base film have to be positioned inline
Sealing layers of sealing film and base film have to be compatible Revise compatibility of sealing layers
Sealing temperature too low/too highAdapt sealing temperature
Sealing time too low/too highAdapt sealing time
Sealing pressure too lowIncrease sealing pressure
Gasket of sealing tool wornExchange sealing gasket
Membrane in upper part of sealing tool defectiveExchange membrane
Sealing plate damagedExchange sealing plate
Sealing plate not planar/level or flatRevise planarity/level or flatness of sealing plate
Sealing valve defectiveExchange sealing valve
Heating elements defectiveExchange heating elements
Contamination of sealing area with productPay attention to clean sealing areas
Length of repeating pattern of sealing film too short, thereby high tension on heat sealed jointRevise and maintain tolerances
Filling level of the package too highReduce filling level of the package
Speed of upper vacuum / vacuum of the valves too fast; the product is pulled onto the sealing areaAdapt vacuum speed
Hot-tack of the film is not sufficient when applying upper valves
Apply other materials with improved hot-tack properties
Adapt filling level of the package
Sealing film shrinks in transversal directionShrinking properties of sealing filmRevise shrinking properties of sealing film, if applicable, exchange material
Penetration of sealing film
Rapid ventilation of the packageRevise setting
Product with sharp edgesPay attention to right positioning of the product within the package
Travel or position of sealing device too lowAdapt filling level of the package/adjust sealing head stroke/ position
Defective sealing (with skin packaging)
Sealing temperature too low/highAdjust sealing temperature
Sealing layer contaminated with productPay attention to clean sealing areas
Sealing layers of sealing film and base film are not compatibleRevise compatibility of sealing layers
Sealing tool contaminatedClean sealing tool
Venting valves set up incorrectlyRevise setting
Insufficient vacuum
Vacuum set too lowRevise setting
Evacuation time set too shortRevise setting
Filter of vacuum pump pluggedExchange filter/check vacuum system
Valve of sealing tool leaky, sealing plate pushes downwardExchange valve of sealing tool
Non-return valve of sealing tool defectiveExchange non-return valve
Product temperatureFor humid food products, we recommend a maximum product temperature of 4°C
Sealing membrane defectiveExchange sealing membrane
Airmarks
Contamination of heat-sealed jointClean heat-sealed joint
Frame of sealing tool contaminatedClean frame of sealing tool
Sealing rubber defectiveExchange sealing rubber
Sealing time too low Adapt sealing time
Buildup on/dirty sealing headClean sealing head
Insufficient gas flushing
Gas valve contaminatedClean gas valve
Flushing time too shortRevise alignment
Gas flushing pressure too highRevise alignment
Wrong setting of gas mixing unitRevise alignment
Wrong composition of modified atmosphereAdapt modified atmosphere to requirements of product to be packaged
Sealing tool not hermetically closedRevise tightness of sealing tool


Cutting station/Transverse cutting
ProblemCauseSolution
Transverse cutting not successful
Punching knife too dull or defectiveSharpen punching knife or exchange punching knife
Punching knife positioned in a wrong angleAdjust position of punching knife
Wrong position of the knife barAdjust position of the knife bar
Wrong knife materialRevise the hardness of the knife material
Cutting impossible due to bending of the packageAdapt filling weight to the size of the package
Puncture resistance of sealing film too highSelect right material
Toughness of base film too highSelect right material
Wrong position of die cutterAdjust position of die cutter
Punching pressure too lowIncrease punching pressure
Punching speed too low (typical problem with APET)Increase punching speed
Wrong geometry of punching knifeAdapt geometry of punching knife to material
Pneumatic conduit loose or defectiveRevise
Hydraulic oil level too lowIncrease hydraulic oil level
Hydraulic cylinder leakyRevise hydraulic system
Rubber springs defectiveExchange rubber springs
Magnetic valve does not switchMeasure tension at magnetic valve
Punching knife contaminated with productClean punching knife
Material accumulation
Punching knife dull or defectiveSharpen punching knife or exchange punching knife
Incorrectly installed cutting bars/wrong cutting bars installedRevise and exchange if necessary
Sticking of the film due to too high sealing temperatureAdapt sealing temperature, if necessary, coat cutting tool with Teflon®
Package overloadedAdapt filling level
Punching knife damages sealing filmAbove fixed punching knife sticks out of the supportAdjust position of the punching knife


Cutting station/Longitudinal cutting
ProblemCauseSolution
Longitudinal cutting not successful
Slitting knife too dull or defectiveSharpen slitting knife or exchange slitting knife
Wrong sense of rotation of knife driving shaftRevise electronic steering of the device
Slip/COF of base film too lowRevise film properties, if feasable, apply film with improved slip properties
Knife driving shaft distortedRevise knife driving shaft, exchange if necessary
Slitting knife contaminated with productClean slitting knife
Wrong knife materialRevise the hardness of the knife material
Impact strength of base film too highSelect right material
Wrong geometry of slitting knifeAdapt geometry of slitting knife to the processed material
Longitudinal cutting within the package
Wrong position of slitting knifeRevise position of slitting knife
Speed of conveyor belt too high in comparison with cutting speedAdapt speed of conveyor belt to cutting speed
Packages with different filling weights in multilane machinesRevise filling weights of packages



PHARMACEUTICAL FORM/FILL/SEAL


Pentapharm® Vinyl Film
ProblemCauseSolution
Under-formed parts (poor definition)
Low temperature
Check for holes in the part and/or white blushing
Increase preheat temperature in 5°C increments
High temperature
Check for holes in part
Decrease temperature in 5°C increments
Low pressure
Check line pressure (90-110 psi recommended)
Check for air leaks
Excess shrinkage (necking in)
High temperatureDecrease temperature in 5°C increments
StickingCheck for sticking in preheats and tooling
Air timingCheck to ensure that forming air does not blow prior to the closing of the mold
Plug timingCheck to ensure that plug is not coming in prior to the closure of the mold
Sticking
Mold too hot
Check chiller
Recommend mold temperature 10°-15°C
No seal
Low seal temperatureIncrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
High seal temperature
Check for heat-seal coating separation from foil
Decrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
Lidding compatibilityCheck with supplier for compatibility of lidding material with seal surface
Leaking seals
Improper material distribution
Check material thickness of seal flange on unsealed formed web (variation of 10-15 microns is normal)
If variation is >20-25 microns, adjust forming for improvement
Warped platen/bad heat element
Using heat-sensitive paper, check for even heat and pressure
Correct any problems


Pentapharm® ACLAR® Film
ProblemCauseSolution
Under-formed parts (poor definition)
Low temperature
Check for holes in the part and/or white blushing
Increase preheat temperature in 5°C increments
High temperature
Check for holes in part
Decrease temperature in 5°C increments
Low pressure
Check line pressure (70-100 psi recommended)
Check for air leaks
White blushing
Low temperatureIncrease preheat temperatures in 5°C increments
High pressureDecrease forming pressure to ~70-75 psi
Crazing/striationsHigh temperatureDecrease temperature in 5°C increments
Excess shrinkage (necking in)
High temperatureDecrease temperature in 5°C increments
Sticking
Check for sticking in preheats and tooling
Teflon® coating recommended
Air timingCheck to ensure that forming air does not blow prior to the closing of the mold
Plug timingCheck to ensure that plug is not coming in prior to the closure of the mold
Sticking/fish-eyes Heat platens dirtyClean plates
Sticking
Teflon® coating worn Replace Teflon® coating
Mold too hot
Check chiller
Recommend mold temperature 10-15°C
No seal
Low seal temperatureIncrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
High seal temperature
Check for heat-seal coating separation from foil
Decrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
Sealing to wrong sideCheck to ensure the correct surface is being sealed (PVC/ACLAR®)
Leaking seals
Improper material distribution
Check material thickness of seal flange on unsealed formed web (variation of 10-15 microns is normal)
If variation is >20-25 microns, adjust forming for improvement
Warped platen/bad heat element
Using heat-sensitive paper, check for even heat and pressure
Correct any problems
ACLAR® film separating at perforationKnives not penetrating ACLAR® filmIncrease depth of cut


Pentapharm® alfoil® PVDC Film
ProblemCauseSolution
Under-formed parts (poor definition)
Low temperature
Check for holes in the part and/or white blushing
Increase preheat temperature in 5°C increments
High temperature
Check for holes in part
Decrease temperature in 5°C increments
Low pressure
Check line pressure (90-110 psi recommended)
Check for air leaks
Excess shrinkage (necking in)

High temperatureDecrease temperature in 5°C increments
Sticking
Check for sticking in preheats and tooling
Teflon® coating recommended
Air timingCheck to ensure that forming air does not blow prior to the closing of the mold
Plug timingCheck to ensure that plug is not coming in prior to the closure of the mold
Sticking
PVdC too hotHeat platen facing PVdC should be 5-10°C cooler relative to PVC side
Heat platens dirtyClean plates
Teflon® coating worn Replace Teflon® coating
Mold too hotCheck chiller
Recommend mold temperature 10-15°C
No seal
Low seal temperatureIncrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
High seal temperature
Check for heat-seal coating separation from foil
Decrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
Lidding compatabilityCheck with supplier for compatibility of lidding material with seal surface
Sealing to wrong sideCheck to ensure the correct surface is being sealed (PVdC/PVC)
Leaking seals
Improper material distribution
Check material thickness of seal flange on unsealed formed web (variation of 10-15 microns is normal)
If variation is >20-25 microns, adjust forming for improvement
Sealing to wrong sideCheck to ensure the correct surface is being sealed (PVdC/PVC)
Warped platen/bad heat element
Using heat-sensitive paper, check for even heat and pressure
Correct any problems


Pentapharm® COC Film
ProblemCauseSolution
Web disappearance
Bending of the web Set web tension , use of a new roll
Web tension too highReduce web tension , check for other possible settings
Films gets opaque or is wavy
Film is sticking to the heating tool
Reduce the heat temperature
Clean the heating tools or replace coating
Badly formed or underformed parts
Low temperatureCheck for holes for white blushing. Increase temperature in 5°C increments
High temperatureThinning out of bottom - reduce temperature in 5°C increments
Low pressureCheck line pressure (90 - 110 psi recommended), check for air leaks
Excess shrinkage (necking in)
High temperatureDecrease temperature in 5°C increments
Sticking
Check for sticking in preheats and tooling
Teflon® coating recommended
Air timingCheck to ensure that forming air does not blow prior to the closing of the mold
Plug timingCheck to ensure that plug is not coming in prior to the closure of the mold
Sticking
Heat platens dirtyClean plates
Teflon® coating worn Replace Teflon® coating
Mold too hot or dirty
Check chiller
Clean forming tool
No or bad sealing
Low seal temperatureIncrease seal temperature in 10°C increments
Lidding compatabilityCheck compatibility of lidding material with seal surface (PP or PVC or others)
Improper material distributionCheck material thickness of seal flange on unsealed, formed web: variation of 10 - 15 µm normal, if variation is > 20 - 25 µm, adjust forming for improvement
Warped platen/bad heat elementUsing heat-sensitive paper, check for even heat and pressure--correct any problem

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CONTACT

Klöckner Pentaplast Group
P.O. Box 11 65
56401 Montabaur
Germany

Contact us
Phone: +49.2602.915.0